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Go to summary table varieties


  • Introduced in 1979 by the University of California.
  • Bud break, 18 days after PAYNE
  • Fruit of excellent quality and large size. Grain very white. Tree moderately vigorous and semi-upright.
  • Very productive, with 80-90% in lateral buds
  • Late harvest
  • Pollinator: Franquette and Fernette


  • 15 days after PAYNE
  • Fruit of excellent quality, very white grain, with 80-90% of production in lateral buds.
  • Shortly vigorous, requires intensive plantation.
  • Collecting five days before Chandler.
  • Pollinator: Franquette and Fernette


  • Classic old variety in USA
  • Large fruit, good quality and very white
  • Extremely vigorous tree, which requires large plantation frame.
  • Sprouting very early (same as Payne), so typical problem in areas prone to frost.
  • Early harvest. Up to 20 days before Chandler in certain climates.


  • Bud burst 12 days after payne. Late flowering.
  • Vigorous and quite self-fertile.
  • Large fruit.
  • 70% flowering in lateral buds

FORDE (UC95-26-37)

  • Introduced in 2004 by the University of California.
  • Young trees are very productive. Collection five days before Chandler.
  • 100% flowering lateral shoots.
  • budding 10 days before Chandler
  • Rounded and white grain
  • Intermiediate Vigor, between Gillet and Sexton.

GILLET (UC95-22-26)

  • Excellent production in young trees. Collecting 10-20 days before Chandler
  • Side 100% bloom. The female flower appears before the male, so precise pollinators, which can be Serr or Sexton.
  • GGillet is the most vigorous of the new varieties..
  • Very large and oblong fruit.
  • Budbrake a week or more before Chandler.

SEXTON  (UC90-31-10)

  • Introduced in 2004 by the University of California
  • Very productive on young trees. Bud break a week before Chandler
  • 100% flowering side shoots. Protoandros Variety (The male flowers appear before the female). Tulare and Chandler Pollinators
  • Rounded fruit. Good grain quality
  • Medium vigor, suitable for intensive plantations
  • Long branhes, thus requiring have pruning


  • Introduced in 1979 by the University of California.
  • Sprouting two days after Payne. Very productive
  • Moderately vigorous tree as an adult, and good effect when young
  • Medium or late harvest

IVANHOE (95-11-14) 

  • Excellent fruit quality. Very early harvesting (as Serr), almost a month before Chandler
  • Early production. 100% lateral flowering
  • Sprouting as Serr, but because they appear before the female flowers, they do so a week before Serr.
  • Serr is a good pollinator.
  • Reduced tree vigor. Requires an excellent treatment.

R. LIVERMORE (91-75-15)

  • Variety from the University of Davis, obtained in 1991 and registered in 2001.
  • Its main feature is the red color of the grain.
  • Obtained by a crossing of Chandler, which retains many features.
  • Sprouting while Chandler (20 days after Payne).
  • Flowering on 23/4 amd peak flowering on 26.04 (in California).
  • Harvest a week before Chandler.
  • 90% production on side shootsde producción en brotes laterales.
  • Rounded fruit.
  • Sensitive bacteriosis.


  • Classic variety
  • Medium/Late harvest
  • Excellent quality fruit
  • Sprounting 16 days after Payne
  • Large fruit and characteristic shape
  • Medium tree vigor
  • ery little production in lateral buds
  • Slow entry into production


  • Classic French variety. It is the basis of almost all French plantations. It is the noix de Perigord.
  • Very late budding.
  • Fruit of excellent quality
  • Slow entry into production and not very abundant.
  • Flowering onto terminal buds.
  • Currently used as pollinator but is a high cold demanding variety so in warm areas it doesn't produce catkins.
  • Bacteriosis sensitive


  • French variety, obtained by crossing Franquette and Lara, in 1978 half Vigor and semi-erect growth habit.
  • Late budding and reduced susceptibility to anthracnose and bacteriosis.
  • Large globular fruit. Fragile shell.
  • Good productivity.
  • Late harvest
  • Very good pollinator for Lara and Chandler.
  • Sprounting at the end of april


  • French variety, same origin as Fernette
  • Very similar characteristics
  • More elongated fruit
  • Sprounting in early May and late flowering.
  • Moderately susceptible to anthracnose and becteriosis
  • late harves


  • French variety, adapted especially to the market for fresh walnut, for its large size and early maturity
  • Rapid entry into production and abundant flowering side shoots.
  • late budding.
  • early harvest.


  • French variety, obtained by INRA, from Franquette and Chandler.
  • Superior vigor than Franquette.
  • short or medium sensitive to bacteriosis.
  • Average productivity higher than Franquette.
  • Rounded fruit and good quality.
  • Early harvest


  • French variety, provenance INRA, from Adams 10 and Chandler
  • Vigor tree below Franquette.
  • Sparse branching, with vigorous shoots.
  • Open structure, allowing a good training center axis.
  • Very rapid entry into production
  • Moderately sensitive to bacteriosis and sensitive to anthracnosis
  • Large fruit and harvest the same time than Lara
  • Sprounting two days before Lara


  • French variety, obtained from Ronda de Montignat and Chandler.
  • budding identical Ronda de Montignat.
  • Abundant in young male flowering trees.
  • Flowering the same date as Ronda de Montignat.
  • Harvest between Lara and Franquette.
  • Good productivity.
  • Excellent pollinator for Franquette and Lara.


  • French variety obtained from Chandler y Lara.
  • Sprounting as Chandler and 10 days before Lara.
  • Not sensitive to antracnosis and medium sensitive to bacteriosis.
  • Very productive.
  • Good caliber
  • Fruit ripening a few days after Lara.


Resumen de las variedades mas comunes en California

Cultivar  Leaf
Growth habit Bearing & yield  Harvest date Net weight (g)  Shell Kernel weight % kernel Kernel   Pollenizers Notes & Assessments
Chandler 4/4 Moderately vigorous Lateral bearing,strong yield  10/8  13.2

Oval, smooth, light color, thin shell, becomes stronger in older trees

6.5 49 Extra light color, easy removal in halves, not well filled Cisco, Franquette, Fernette Most common variety, excellent color & halves, fewer pest problems, but relatively late harvest
Cisco 4/14  Smaller & more precocious than Franquette Terminal bearing, moderate yield 10/12 14.2 Good seal & strength 14.8 44 Color can be variable, generally medium light Used as a pollenizer for Chandler Pollenizer variety only, for use with Chandler, Howard
Eureka 3/28 Vigorous Terminal bearing, fair yield 9/29 15.2 Elongated and round at both ends, solid shell & seal 7.4 49 Poor kernal color None recommended Old mid-season variety with distinctive elongated nut shape
Fernette 4/15 Moderate vigor Lateral bearing, good yield 10/13 14.9 Good strength 7.5 50 Light & extra light Used as pollenizer for Chandler  Developed in France. Abundant pollen producer, more precocious than Franquette.
Forde  3/30 Moderate vigor Lateral bearing, good yield 10/8 15.5 Strong shell, good strength & size 8.1 52 Plump, light color, good removal Ivanhoe, Howard, Tulare Females bloom before catkins, hulls don't open well at maturity, selected for blight resistance, late harvest
Franquette 4/23 Vigorous large tree Terminal bearing, fair yield 10/17 11 Medium-thin shell with good seal 5.5 50 Good quality, light & extra light color Used at pollenizer for Chandler Old variety, late harvest, primarily used as pollenizer for Chandler & Hartley
Gillet  3/25 Moderately vigorous Lateral bearing, strong yield 9/27 15.2 Large with good shell, seals can be weak 7.7 51 Light color & easy to remove Payne, Vina, Serr Newer mid-season variety with large nuts, some blight resistance
Hartley 4/3 Large tree Terminal bearing, moderate yield 10/4 14.3 Classic in-shell shape 6.5 45 Preferred for in-shell use Often no pollenizer used, Cicso, Franquette Classic variety for sale in the shell, distinct triangular shape, susceptible to deep bark canker
Howard  4/2 Moderate, not as vigorous as Chandler in some locations Lateral bearing, strong yield 9/28 14.3 Large, strong, good seal,can be a bit rough 7.2 51 Light color but darkens in storage Cisco, Franquette, Fernette Large nuts, often marketed as an in-shell variety, does not grow well in Jan Joaquin Valley, limb breakage
Ivanhoe  3/17 Fairly small to moderate tree Lateral bearing, strong yield, very precocious 9/13 12.8 Smooth, thin shell 7.3 57 Extra light color, easy removal Payne, Serr Not resistant to blight, very early harvest date with excellent color, female bloom before catkins, recommended for San Joaquin Valley
3/18 Precocious, moderate size, upright Lateral bearing, moderate yield 9/15 12.9 Good strength & appearance 6.4 50 Light color, good quality, easy removal Tehama, Chico, Hartley Early harvest date, very susceptible to blight, DNA markers indicate Ashley & Payne are identical
Poe  4/7 Large Terminal bearing, fair yield 10/4 13.7 Thick shell, not well filled 5.6 41 Small kernel marketable for flavor None recommended Unique variety grown in Lake Co, CA for its flavor
Robert Livermore  4/3 Moderate, similar to Chandler Lateral bearing, moderate yield 9/29 12.9 Solid, moderately small & dark 6.4 50 Red kernel skin Cisco, Franquette, Fernette Kernels with distinctive uniform red skin color
Serr  3/20 Very vigorous Moderately fruitful on laterals, yield variable 9/19 14.4 Thin shell, good seal, well filled 8.1 56 Light color & excellent quality pollenizers not recommended High quality and potential high productivity but susceptible to flower drop if exposed to excess pollen
Sexton  3/26 Densely branched canopy, flowers in clusters common Lateral bearing, good yield, very precocious 10/1 15.6 Large, smooth, round, good strength 8.3 53 Large, light color and easy to remove from shell Covers itself well, Chandler, Howard, Tulare Unusual forked branch habit & cluster flowering
Solano  3/28 Moderate, similar to Chandler, upright Lateral bearing, strong yield  9/24 14.6 Good strength & appearance, suitable for in-shell use 7.9 54 Light & extra light color, good removal Chandler, Howard, Tulare Vina timing with better color & upright growth habit
Sunland  3/20 Vigorous Lateral bearing, variable yield 9/27 17.9 Well filled, large, oval, solid shell 9.8 55 good quality, large, plump & oval Chico, Tehama & Tulare Potential for high productivity but susceptible nut drop & oilless nuts
Tehama 3/31 Vigorous Lateral bearing, heavy 9/25 14.1 Solid shell, can have weak seals 6.8 48 Light color, not well filled Used at a pollenizer for Serr Primarily a pollenizer for Serr
Tulare 4/1 Upright, vigorous Lateral bearing, strong yield  9/28 14.1 Medium texture & strength 7.6 53 Light color, good fill Often planted with no pollenizer Vigorous growth, good mid-season yield, upright canopy; susceptible to fall & winter cold temperatures
Vina 3/26 Moderate size, not upright, tendency to over-bear Lateral bearing, strong yield  9/23 12.6 Good seal & strength, can be used in-shell 6.2 49 Often color is not adequate Chico, Chandler, Tehama, Howard Highly productive but reputation for inadequate kernel color & branch structure